Documentation

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§Integrating with Akka Typed

§Akka Actor Typed styles

Akka’s Actor Typed API has two styles:

  1. a “functional programming” style, based on defining an actor Behaviors with values; and
  2. a “object-oriented” style, based on defining an actor Behaviors with subclasses.

For instance, here’s an example of a simple actor that says hello back:

Scala FP
import akka.actor.typed.ActorRef
import akka.actor.typed.Behavior
import akka.actor.typed.scaladsl.Behaviors

object HelloActor {
  final case class SayHello(
      name: String,
      replyTo: ActorRef[String],
  )

  def create(): Behavior[SayHello] = {
    Behaviors.receiveMessage[SayHello] {
      case SayHello(name, replyTo) =>
        replyTo ! s"Hello, $name"
        Behaviors.same
    }
  }
}
Scala OO
import akka.actor.typed.ActorRef
import akka.actor.typed.Behavior
import akka.actor.typed.scaladsl.AbstractBehavior
import akka.actor.typed.scaladsl.ActorContext
import akka.actor.typed.scaladsl.Behaviors

object HelloActor {
  final case class SayHello(
      name: String,
      replyTo: ActorRef[String],
  )

  def create(): Behavior[HelloActor.SayHello] = {
    Behaviors.setup(context => new HelloActor(context))
  }
}

final class HelloActor private (
    context: ActorContext[HelloActor.SayHello],
) extends AbstractBehavior(context) {

  import HelloActor._

  def onMessage(msg: SayHello) = {
    msg.replyTo ! s"Hello, ${msg.name}"
    this
  }
}
Java FP
import akka.actor.typed.ActorRef;
import akka.actor.typed.Behavior;
import akka.actor.typed.javadsl.Behaviors;

public final class HelloActor {

  public static final class SayHello {
    public final String name;
    public final ActorRef<String> replyTo;

    public SayHello(String name, ActorRef<String> replyTo) {
      this.name = name;
      this.replyTo = replyTo;
    }
  }

  public static Behavior<HelloActor.SayHello> create() {
    return Behaviors.receiveMessage(
        (SayHello message) -> {
          message.replyTo.tell("Hello, " + message.name);
          return Behaviors.same();
        });
  }
}
Java OO
import akka.actor.typed.ActorRef;
import akka.actor.typed.Behavior;
import akka.actor.typed.javadsl.AbstractBehavior;
import akka.actor.typed.javadsl.ActorContext;
import akka.actor.typed.javadsl.Behaviors;
import akka.actor.typed.javadsl.Receive;

public final class HelloActor extends AbstractBehavior<HelloActor.SayHello> {

  public static final class SayHello {
    public final String name;
    public final ActorRef<String> replyTo;

    public SayHello(String name, ActorRef<String> replyTo) {
      this.name = name;
      this.replyTo = replyTo;
    }
  }

  public static Behavior<HelloActor.SayHello> create() {
    return Behaviors.setup((ctx) -> new HelloActor(ctx));
  }

  private HelloActor(ActorContext<HelloActor.SayHello> context) {
    super(context);
  }

  @Override
  public Receive<SayHello> createReceive() {
    return newReceiveBuilder().onMessage(SayHello.class, this::onHello).build();
  }

  private Behavior<SayHello> onHello(SayHello message) {
    message.replyTo.tell("Hello, " + message.name);
    return this;
  }
}

While here is an example of an actor that depends on Play’s Configuration in order to return configuration values:

Scala FP
import akka.actor.typed.ActorRef
import akka.actor.typed.Behavior
import akka.actor.typed.scaladsl.Behaviors
import com.google.inject.Provides
import play.api.Configuration
import play.api.libs.concurrent.ActorModule

object ConfiguredActor extends ActorModule {
  type Message = GetConfig

  final case class GetConfig(replyTo: ActorRef[String])

  @Provides
  def create(configuration: Configuration): Behavior[GetConfig] = {
    Behaviors.setup { _ =>
      val config = configuration.get[String]("my.config")
      Behaviors.receiveMessage[GetConfig] {
        case GetConfig(replyTo) =>
          replyTo ! config
          Behaviors.same
      }
    }
  }
}
Scala OO
import akka.actor.typed.ActorRef
import akka.actor.typed.Behavior
import akka.actor.typed.scaladsl.AbstractBehavior
import akka.actor.typed.scaladsl.ActorContext
import akka.actor.typed.scaladsl.Behaviors
import javax.inject.Inject
import play.api.Configuration

object ConfiguredActor {
  final case class GetConfig(replyTo: ActorRef[String])

  def create(
      configuration: Configuration,
  ): Behavior[ConfiguredActor.GetConfig] = {
    Behaviors.setup { context =>
      new ConfiguredActor(context, configuration)
    }
  }
}

final class ConfiguredActor private (
    context: ActorContext[ConfiguredActor.GetConfig],
    configuration: Configuration,
) extends AbstractBehavior(context) {

  import ConfiguredActor._

  val config = configuration.get[String]("my.config")
  def onMessage(msg: GetConfig) = {
    msg.replyTo ! config
    this
  }
}
Java FP
import akka.actor.typed.ActorRef;
import akka.actor.typed.Behavior;
import akka.actor.typed.javadsl.Behaviors;
import akka.actor.typed.javadsl.Receive;
import com.typesafe.config.Config;

import javax.inject.Inject;

public final class ConfiguredActor {

  public static final class GetConfig {
    public final ActorRef<String> replyTo;

    public GetConfig(ActorRef<String> replyTo) {
      this.replyTo = replyTo;
    }
  }

  public static Behavior<ConfiguredActor.GetConfig> create(Config config) {
    String myConfig = config.getString("my.config");
    return Behaviors.receiveMessage(
        (GetConfig message) -> {
          message.replyTo.tell(myConfig);
          return Behaviors.same();
        });
  }
}
Java OO
import akka.actor.typed.ActorRef;
import akka.actor.typed.Behavior;
import akka.actor.typed.javadsl.AbstractBehavior;
import akka.actor.typed.javadsl.ActorContext;
import akka.actor.typed.javadsl.Behaviors;
import akka.actor.typed.javadsl.Receive;
import com.typesafe.config.Config;

public final class ConfiguredActor extends AbstractBehavior<ConfiguredActor.GetConfig> {

  public static final class GetConfig {
    public final ActorRef<String> replyTo;

    public GetConfig(ActorRef<String> replyTo) {
      this.replyTo = replyTo;
    }
  }

  private final String config;

  public static Behavior<ConfiguredActor.GetConfig> create(Config config) {
    return Behaviors.setup((ctx) -> new ConfiguredActor(ctx, config));
  }

  private ConfiguredActor(ActorContext<ConfiguredActor.GetConfig> context, Config config) {
    super(context);
    this.config = config.getString("my.config");
  }

  @Override
  public Receive<GetConfig> createReceive() {
    return newReceiveBuilder().onMessage(GetConfig.class, this::onGetConfig).build();
  }

  private Behavior<GetConfig> onGetConfig(GetConfig message) {
    message.replyTo.tell(config);
    return this;
  }
}

§Dependency Injection

If your actor’s behavior has mutable state, as is sometimes common in the object-oriented style, make sure you don’t share the same Behavior instance for multiple ActorRefs. Here are some general ways to avoid the problem:

  1. Consider a design without mutable state;
  2. Don’t leak the Behavior instance by only exposing the ActorRef instance, for example by only binding the ActorRef;
  3. If the objective is to only have one single instance of the actor, then make sure that both the Behavior and ActorRef are singletons, for example by using @Singleton or .asEagerSingleton;
  4. If, instead, there are meant to be multiple instances of the same actor then make sure both Behavior and ActorRef are named singletons, in Guice by using @Named or .annotatedWith(Names.named(..)).

§Compile-time dependency injection

Using compile-time dependency injection for Akka Actor Typed requires creating the actor Behavior value and using it to spawn the actor:

Scala
import akka.actor.typed.scaladsl.adapter._
import play.api._
import play.api.routing.Router

final class AppComponents(context: ApplicationLoader.Context)
    extends BuiltInComponentsFromContext(context)
    with NoHttpFiltersComponents {
  val router = Router.empty

  val helloActor = {
    actorSystem.spawn(HelloActor.create(), "hello-actor")
  }
  val configuredActor = {
    val behavior = ConfiguredActor.create(configuration)
    actorSystem.spawn(behavior, "configured-actor")
  }

  val main = new Main(helloActor, configuredActor)
}
Java
import akka.actor.typed.ActorRef;
import akka.actor.typed.javadsl.Adapter;
import play.ApplicationLoader;
import play.BuiltInComponentsFromContext;
import play.mvc.EssentialFilter;
import play.routing.Router;

import java.util.Collections;
import java.util.List;

public final class AppComponents extends BuiltInComponentsFromContext {

  public final ActorRef<HelloActor.SayHello> helloActor;
  public final ActorRef<ConfiguredActor.GetConfig> configuredActor;
  public final Main main;

  public AppComponents(ApplicationLoader.Context context) {
    super(context);
    helloActor = Adapter.spawn(actorSystem(), HelloActor.create(), "hello-actor");
    configuredActor =
        Adapter.spawn(actorSystem(), ConfiguredActor.create(config()), "configured-actor");
    main = new Main(helloActor, configuredActor);
  }

  @Override
  public Router router() {
    return Router.empty();
  }

  @Override
  public List<EssentialFilter> httpFilters() {
    return Collections.emptyList();
  }
}

§Runtime dependency injection

For runtime dependency injection use the “typed” methods in AkkaGuiceSupport, if using the functional-programming style. For the object-oriented style you must write a Provider for your ActorRef and bind it.

For instance, given a component in your application or system that needs injecting, like this one:

Scala
import javax.inject.Inject
import javax.inject.Singleton
import akka.actor.typed.ActorRef

@Singleton final class Main @Inject()(
    val helloActor: ActorRef[HelloActor.SayHello],
    val configuredActor: ActorRef[ConfiguredActor.GetConfig],
)
Java
import akka.actor.typed.ActorRef;

import javax.inject.Inject;
import javax.inject.Singleton;

@Singleton
public final class Main {
  public final ActorRef<HelloActor.SayHello> helloActor;
  public final ActorRef<ConfiguredActor.GetConfig> configuredActor;

  @Inject
  public Main(
      ActorRef<HelloActor.SayHello> helloActor,
      ActorRef<ConfiguredActor.GetConfig> configuredActor) {
    this.helloActor = helloActor;
    this.configuredActor = configuredActor;
  }
}

You can define a Guice Module like so:

Scala FP
import com.google.inject.AbstractModule
import play.api.libs.concurrent.AkkaGuiceSupport

object AppModule extends AbstractModule with AkkaGuiceSupport {
  override def configure() = {
    bindTypedActor(HelloActor.create(), "hello-actor")  // uses "create" method
    bindTypedActor(ConfiguredActor, "configured-actor") // uses the object itself
  }
}
Scala OO
import akka.actor.ActorSystem
import akka.actor.typed.scaladsl.adapter._
import akka.actor.typed.ActorRef
import com.google.inject.AbstractModule
import com.google.inject.Provider
import com.google.inject.TypeLiteral
import javax.inject.Inject
import play.api.Configuration
import play.api.libs.concurrent.AkkaGuiceSupport

object AppModule extends AbstractModule with AkkaGuiceSupport {
  override def configure() = {
    bindTypedActor(HelloActor.create(), "hello-actor")
    bind(new TypeLiteral[ActorRef[ConfiguredActor.GetConfig]]() {})
      .toProvider(classOf[ConfiguredActorProvider])
      .asEagerSingleton()
  }

  private class ConfiguredActorProvider @Inject()(
      actorSystem: ActorSystem,
      configuration: Configuration,
  ) extends Provider[ActorRef[ConfiguredActor.GetConfig]] {
    def get() = {
      val behavior = ConfiguredActor.create(configuration)
      actorSystem.spawn(behavior, "configured-actor")
    }
  }
}
Java FP
import akka.actor.ActorSystem;
import akka.actor.typed.javadsl.Adapter;
import akka.actor.typed.ActorRef;
import com.google.inject.AbstractModule;
import com.google.inject.Provider;
import com.google.inject.TypeLiteral;
import com.typesafe.config.Config;
import javax.inject.Inject;

public class AppModule extends AbstractModule {

  @Override
  protected void configure() {
    bind(new TypeLiteral<ActorRef<HelloActor.SayHello>>() {})
        .toProvider(HelloActorProvider.class)
        .asEagerSingleton();
    bind(new TypeLiteral<ActorRef<ConfiguredActor.GetConfig>>() {})
        .toProvider(ConfiguredActorProvider.class)
        .asEagerSingleton();
  }

  public static class HelloActorProvider implements Provider<ActorRef<HelloActor.SayHello>> {
    private final ActorSystem actorSystem;

    @Inject
    public HelloActorProvider(ActorSystem actorSystem) {
      this.actorSystem = actorSystem;
    }

    @Override
    public ActorRef<HelloActor.SayHello> get() {
      return Adapter.spawn(actorSystem, HelloActor.create(), "hello-actor");
    }
  }

  public static class ConfiguredActorProvider
      implements Provider<ActorRef<ConfiguredActor.GetConfig>> {

    private final ActorSystem actorSystem;
    private final Config config;

    @Inject
    public ConfiguredActorProvider(ActorSystem actorSystem, Config config) {
      this.actorSystem = actorSystem;
      this.config = config;
    }

    @Override
    public ActorRef<ConfiguredActor.GetConfig> get() {
      return Adapter.spawn(actorSystem, ConfiguredActor.create(config), "configured-actor");
    }
  }
}
Java OO
import akka.actor.ActorSystem;
import akka.actor.typed.javadsl.Adapter;
import akka.actor.typed.ActorRef;
import com.google.inject.AbstractModule;
import com.google.inject.Provider;
import com.google.inject.TypeLiteral;
import com.typesafe.config.Config;
import javax.inject.Inject;

public class AppModule extends AbstractModule {

  @Override
  protected void configure() {
    bind(new TypeLiteral<ActorRef<HelloActor.SayHello>>() {})
        .toProvider(HelloActorProvider.class)
        .asEagerSingleton();
    bind(new TypeLiteral<ActorRef<ConfiguredActor.GetConfig>>() {})
        .toProvider(ConfiguredActorProvider.class)
        .asEagerSingleton();
  }

  public static class HelloActorProvider implements Provider<ActorRef<HelloActor.SayHello>> {
    private final ActorSystem actorSystem;

    @Inject
    public HelloActorProvider(ActorSystem actorSystem) {
      this.actorSystem = actorSystem;
    }

    @Override
    public ActorRef<HelloActor.SayHello> get() {
      return Adapter.spawn(actorSystem, HelloActor.create(), "hello-actor");
    }
  }

  public static class ConfiguredActorProvider
      implements Provider<ActorRef<ConfiguredActor.GetConfig>> {

    private final ActorSystem actorSystem;
    private final Config config;

    @Inject
    public ConfiguredActorProvider(ActorSystem actorSystem, Config config) {
      this.actorSystem = actorSystem;
      this.config = config;
    }

    @Override
    public ActorRef<ConfiguredActor.GetConfig> get() {
      return Adapter.spawn(actorSystem, ConfiguredActor.create(config), "configured-actor");
    }
  }
}

Next: Akka Cluster Sharding for Akka Typed (incubating)